Türkiye'nin İlk İHA Sistemleri Portalı

Drone

  • "Yeni Havacılar"ın Drone'ları, yolcu uçaklarını tehdit ediyor

    Washington Post'un ele geçirdiği bir FAA raporuna göre, 2015 yılında ABD'de meydana gelen Drone - Yolcu Uçağı yakın geçiş sayısı neredeyse 700'e ulaştı. 2015 yılının sadece ilk sekiz ayında meydana gelen bu 700 olay, 2014 yılında meydana gelen toplam rakamın yaklaşık 3 katı. 15 Ağustos 2015 günü, bir gün içinde meydana gelen yakın geçiş sayısı rekor kırarak 15 oldu. 

    Mevcut ABD sivil İHA düzenlemelerine göre; İHA'ların 400 feet üzerinde veya havaalanlarına göre 5 NM içinde uçması yasak. Buna rağmen hızla artan yakın geçiş olayları, sivil havacılık sektöründe büyük endişelere yol açıyor. Henüz bir Drone - Yolcu Uçağı çarpışması olmasa da, riskin her geçen gün daha büyüdüğüne inanılıyor.

    Halihazırda, gerçekleştirilen ticari İHA uygulamalarının neredeyse tamamına yakın bir kısmı, azami kalkış ağırlığı 25 kg altındaki Drone'larla gerçekleştiriliyor ve bu uygulamaları gerçekleştiren kişilerin yine neredeyse tamamının herhangi bir havacılık deneyimi yok. "Yeni Havacılar" olarak adlandırılabilecek bu on binlerce, belki de yüz binlerce kişinin bir an önce bilinçlendirilmesi gerekiyor.

  • 21. Yüzyılda Sivil ve Ticari İHA Uygulamaları (2014)

    Öz

    21. yüzyılın ilk yarısındaki belirsizlik ve bilinmeyen odaklı güvenlik ortamında küresel iklim değişikliği, doğal ve insan kaynaklı afetler, su sorunu, enerji sorunu, gıda sorunu, nüfus artışı, göç ve gelir dağılımı dengesizliği gibi hususların potansiyel risk sahaları olması beklenmektedir. Muhtemel tehlikelere yönelik risklerin kontrol edilmesi amacıyla gerçekleştirilecek uygulamalar kapsamında, dünya genelinde her yıl daha fazla kullanım örnekleri görülmekte olan İnsansız Hava Aracı (İHA) sistemleri, uygun çözümler sunabilme imkânına sahiptir. İHA sistemleri 2000’li yılların başından itibaren hızla yayılmış, sistemlerin sayısı ve çeşitleri artarken paralel olarak kabiliyetleri de oldukça gelişmiş ve askeri güvenlik ortamına yeni bir anlayış getirmiştir. Uluslararası Sivil Havacılık Organizasyonu (ICAO), ABD ve Avrupa Birliği liderliğinde yürütülen çalışmalar sonucunda, hâlihazırda her geçen gün daha fazla sayıda görülmekte olan sivil ve ticari İHA uygulamalarının 2020’li yıllarda oldukça yaygınlaşacağı öngörülmektedir.

    Anahtar Kelimeler: İnsansız hava aracı, İHA Sistemleri, 21. yüzyıl, güvenlik.

    Not: Cengiz KARAAĞAÇ tarafından hazırlanan bildiri, Millî Güvenlik ve Askerî Bilimler Akademik Dergisi'nin Temmuz 2014 sayısında yayımlanmıştır.

    Dokümanı Açınız

  • AB İHA Sistemleri Vizyonu

    Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) vision for Europe ile ilgili görsel sonucu

    Avrupa Birliği'nin Avrupa hava sahasından sorunmlu organizasyonu EUROCONTROL tarafından İHA sistemleri vizyonu dokümanı yayımlandı.3 Şubat 2017 tarihli vizyon dokümanına göre İHA'ların hava sahasına entegrasyonu kademeli bir şekilde gerçekleşecek. 

    - 2020 yılına kadar İHA kullanımı bazı limitler dahilinde olacak. Yakın mesafede ve insanlardan uzak olacak şekilde İHA'lar kullanılacak.

    - 2022 yılına kadar İHA'lara önceden programlanabilir uçuş kabiliyetleri kazandırılacak. Bu sayede alçak irtifada belirlenen rotalarda uçabilecek ve sabit veya hareketli engelleri tespit ederek kaçınabilecektir. İHA'lar, gerektiğinde müdahil olabilecek bir pilotun sürekli nezaretinde otonom bir şekilde uçabilecektir.

    - En erken 2030 yılında hava yollarına benzer büyük gövdeli ticari İHA'lar görülmeye başlanacak. Büyük gövdeli İHA'lar, insanlı hava araçlarıyla birlikte aynı hava sahasında ve aynı kurallara tabi olarak uçacak. Başlangıçta belirli hava sahalarında başlayacak olan pilot uygulamalar, zamanla yaygınlaşacak.

    Dokümanı Açınız

  • ABD Afganistan'da insansız hava aracıyla saldırdı: 28 ölü

    ABD Afganistan'da insansız hava aracıyla saldırdı: 28 ölü

    Afganistan'ın doğusundaki Nangarhar kentinde ABD güçlerine ait insansız hava aracı (İHA) saldırısında 28 kişi öldü.

    Afganistan'ın doğusundaki Nangarhar Valiliği Sözcüsü Ahmad Ziya Abdulzai kentin Heske Mena ilçesinde toplantı düzenleyen militanlara, ABD güçlerinin İHA ile saldırı gerçekleştirdiğini söyledi.

    Dün gece geç saatlerde düzenlenen saldırıda 28 Taliban üyesinin öldüğünü bildiren sözcü, sivillerin zarar görmediğini ifade etti. 

    Taliban ise saldırıyla ilgili henüz bir açıklama yapmadı. 

    Son dönemlerde Afganistan'ın doğu bölgesinde ve özellikle Nangarhar kentinde ülkedeki ABD güçlerinin İHA saldırılarında ciddi artış görülüyor. 

    Geçtiğimiz günlerde 100'ün üzerinde Taliban ve IŞİD militanı bu saldırılarda yaşamını yitirdi.

    Kaynak: Sabah

  • ABD Anavatan Güvenliği Bakanlığı: İHA'lar terörist saldırılarda kullanılabilir

    CBS News'ten Jeff Pegues'in haberine göre; ABD Anavatan Güvenliği Bakanlığı, ABD genelinde gerçekleştirilebilecek terörist saldırılarda İHA'ların kullanılabileceğine yönelik resmi uyarıda bulundu. Bakanlık tarafından 31 Temmuz 2015 günü ülke genelindeki tüm polis birimlerine gönderilen uyarıda, silahlandırılmış İHA'larla saldırılar gerçekleştirilebileceği ifade ediliyor.

    Kaynak: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/homeland-security-warns-drones-could-be-used-in-attacks/

  • ABD Askeri İHA Sistemleri Yol Haritası 2005-2030

    ABD Savunma Bakanlığı tarafından 2005 yılında yayımlanan "UAS Roadmap 2005-2030" dokümanı, tüm Kuvvet Komutanlıkları İHA'larını kapsayacak şekilde hazırlanarak 2005 yılında yayımlanmıştır. Bahse konu doküman, aynı konuda 2003 yılında yayımlanmış "UAVs Roadmap 2002" dokümanının yerini almış; İnsansız Kara ve Deniz Araçlarını içerecek şekilde hazırlanıp 2007 yılında yayımlanan "Integrated Unmanned Systems Roadmap 2007-2032" dokümanı sonrasında ise geçerliliğini yitirmiştir.

    "UAS Roadmap (2005-2030)" dokümanına ve Sayın Fikret Döşer tarafından "İHA Sistemleri Yol Haritası 2005-2030" adıyla Türkçeye çevrilmiş versiyonuna aşağıdaki linklerden ulaşabilirsiniz. 

    UAS Roadmap 2005-2030

    İHA Sistemleri Yol Haritası 2005-2030

  • ABD İHA Çalışma Grubu, İHA'ların kayıt usullerine yönelik çalışmasını tamamladı

    Çalışmalarına Ekim 2015 sonunda başlayan FAA İHA Kaydı Çalışma Grubu, hazırladığı öneri listesini 21 Kasım 2015 tarihinde FAA'ye teslim etti. Çalışma grubu görüşleri ile diğer unsurlar tarafından verilen diğer görüşler dikkate alınarak FAA nihai çalışmasını tamamlayarak uygulamaya geçirecek. Bahse konu faaliyetin bir kaç ay içinde yapılması hedefleniyor. 

    Sivil ve ticari İHA uygulamalarına yönelik kayıt usullerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla FAA tarafından 22 Ekim 2015 tarihinde oluşturulan çalışma grubunda, FAA dışında 25 farklı organizasyondan üyeler bulunuyor. Başkanlığı FAA İHA Entegrasyon Ofisi Müdürü Earl Lawrence ve GoogleX'ten Dave Vos tarafından gerçekleştirilen çalışma grubunda, çok farklı alanlardan temsilciler bulunuyor.

    Potansiyel İHA kullanıcısı olarak çalışma grubuna katılan Amazon, Best Buy, Google ve Walmart firmalarının varlığı, ticari İHA sektörünün nereye doğru gittiğine yönelik önemli işaretler veriyor. Çalışma grubunun eş başkanlığının Google temsilcisi tarafından gerçekleştirilmesi ise bir diğer önemli mesaj olarak alınabilir.

    İHA'ların sivil hava sahasına entegrasyonu, mevcut havacılık uygulamaları kapsamında havacılık sektörünün büyük bir bölümünde oldukça büyük endişelere neden oluyor. Bu endişelerin ortadan kaldırılması kapsamında ticari, genel ve amatör havacılık sivil toplum kuruluşlarının (STK) neredeyse tamamının çalışma grubunda bulunması, sektörün tümü tarafından kabul edilebilir sonuçlar doğuracaktır.

    Yakın gelecekte sivil ve ticari İHA uygulamalarının neredeyse tamamına yakın bir kısmı 25 kg (55 lb) ve altı ağırlıktaki İHA'lar tarafından gerçekleştirilecektir. Bu kapsamda ABD'de 17 Şubat 2015 tarihinde yayımlanan ilk düzenleme, 25 kg (55 lb) ve altı azami kalkış ağırlığındaki İHA'lara yönelik olmuştur. Bahse konu çalışma grubuna İHA üreticisi olarak katılan 5 firmanın ürünlerinin tamamı 25 kg altında olup, bu firmalar 25 kg altı sivil ve ticari İHA pazarının neredeyse tamamını kapsamaktadır.

    Türkiye'de Sivil Havacılık Genel Müdürlüğü (SHGM) tarafından İnsansız Hava Araçları (İHA) kurallarının oluşturulabilmesi amacıyla Ağustos 2015 ayında çalışma grupları oluşturulduğu açıklandı. Yaklaşık bir yıldır küçük bir çalışma grubuyla sürdürülen İHA Talimatı revize çalışmaları, sektörden daha geniş bir katılım sonucunda oluşturulan alt çalışma grupları aracılığıyla sürdürülmeye devam edilecek.

    SHGM İHA Ana Çalışma Grubu'nda aşağıdaki listesi verilen kurumlardan personel görev yapmaktadır.

    İHA Ana Çalışma Grubu
    Gökhan KAZAN

    SHGM UED SHY-21 Sertifikasyon Koordinatörü

    Cengiz KARAAĞAÇ

    SSM Danışmanı

    Tacettin KÖPRÜLÜ

    Altoy Savunma

    İhsan GAFUROĞLU

    Hacettepe TARGEM

    H. Özgür DERMAN 

    TAI

    Berk YAVRU 

    Robonik Mekatronik

    Mehmet ÖZTEKİN  Flycam
    Mustafa Onur ERDEM  EGM

    SHGM'nin İHA Alt Çalışma Grupları'nda görev yapan personel listesine, aşağıdaki linkten ulaşabilirsiniz.

    http://web.shgm.gov.tr/tr/shgm-calisma-gruplari/4895-iha-ana-calisma-grubu

     

     

     

     

     

  • ABD Kara Kuvvetleri Karşı İHA Stratejisi

    United States Army Counter - Unmanned Aircraft System (C-UAS) ile ilgili görsel sonucu

    05 Ekim 2016 tarihli ABD Kara Kuvvetleri Karşı İHA Stratejisi dokümanında; ilk olarak geleceğin harekat ortamındaki düşman İHA tehditleri incelenmekte ve sonrasında ise bu tehditleri etkisizleştirmek için alınabilecek karşı İHA tedbirlerine yönelik hususlar tartışılmaktadır.

    Dokümanı Açınız

  • ABD Kara Kuvvetleri Karşı İHA Teknikleri Talimnamesi

    Counter drone ile ilgili görsel sonucu

    13 Nisan 2017 tarihli ABD Kara Kuvvetleri Karşı İHA Teknikleri dokümanında; ilk olarak geleceğin harekat ortamındaki düşman İHA tehditleri incelenmekte ve sonrasında ise bu tehditleri etkisizleştirmek için tugay, tabur ve bölük seviyelerinde alınabilecek karşı İHA tedbirleri listelenmektedir. Ayrıca, karşı İHA tedbirleri kapsamında verilecek eğitimler ayrıntılı bir şekilde incelenmektedir.

    Dokümanı Açınız

  • ABD Kara Kuvvetleri'nin MQ-5B Hunter İHA'ları emekli oldu

    US Army Hunter UAV retires from 20-year home

    The US Army’s Northrop Grumman MQ-5B hunter unmanned air vehicle has flown its last flight from its home at Ft Huachuca in Arizona, where it has been stationed for some 20 years.

    In service since 1996, the medium-altitude, long-endurance Hunter has flown 12,896 out of some 100,000 total flight hours from the site, according to the army, and is being replaced at Huachuca by the General Atomics Aeronautical Systems MQ-1C Gray Eagle UAV.

    asset image

    The Hunter carried out its last flight from the Rugge Hamilton runway in Arizona, watched by personnel that had been involved in the programme over its lifespan. It will remain in operation at other army, where it will be managed by Northrop Grumman.

    Operations of the Hunter began at Huachuca in 1992, when a limited user test (LUT) was set up to test the UAV against what was the McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) Sky Owl UAV, and in conjunction with this a training class for the type was established.

    This class was made up of army soldiers and Marines Corps personnel who graduated in April 1992. After the LUT had been completed, the US Department of Defense selected the Hunter for its short-range UAV requirement. The Hunter was consequently deployed to Iraq and Kosovo.

    asset image

    Source: Flightglobal

  • ABD Kara Kuvvetlerine ait Gray Eagle İHA'sı Irak'ta düştü

    American Drone Crashes in Desert, Iraqi Military Says

    A U.S. military drone crashed in the Iraqi desert and was found by a shepherd, officials in Baghdad said Tuesday after pictures of a downed device circulated on social media.

    The drone was found near Samawa in the Muthana Province of south-western Iraq, according to General Yahya Al-Zubaidi, spokesman of the Joint Operation Command.

    "I talked to U.S. advisers and they confirmed that they lost a drone two weeks ago.," he said. "The shepherd called the police and a unit from the Samawa Police Directorate arrived at the location and they took it to the Al-Mamlaha police station."

    Unverified pictures circulating on Twitter showed Iraqis posing for selfies in front of what appeared to be a crashed drone, but it wasn't clear if the device was the same as the one lost by the U.S. 

    Source: NBC News

  • ABD Ordusu Siber Kaygılar Nedeniyle Çin İHA'larını Yasakladı

    china drone ile ilgili görsel sonucu

    ABD Kara Kuvvetleri, siber güvenlik kaygıları nedeniyle Çin firması DJI tarafından üretilen ticari İHA'ların kullanımını durdurma kararı aldı.

    Defence One yayın organının haberine göre; ABD Kara Kuvvetleri tarafından yayımlanan 2 Ağustos 2017 tarihli emirle, Çin firması DJI'nın ürünlerinde siber güvenlik açıkları olabileceği gerekçesiyle, DJI'nın ürettiği ticari kullanım maksatlı İHA'ların askeri unsurlar tarafından kullanımı durduruldu. Ayrıca, DJI uygulamalarının bilgisayar ve akıllı cihazlardan silinmesi, bataryaların ve belleklerin İHA'lardan çıkarılması ve tüm ekipmanların emniyet altına alınması istendi.

    DJI firması, halihazırda küresel ticari İHA pazarının yaklaşık %70'ine sahip. ABD Kara Kuvvetlerinin aldığı bu kararın, DJI'nın satışlarını belirli oranda etkileyebileceği tahmin ediliyor.

    Kaynak: Defence One

     

  • ABD Raporu: Çin'in silahlı İHA kabiliyeti artıyor

    US DoD annual report highlights China's growing UAV strike capabilities

    Kelvin Wong, Singapore - IHS Jane's Defence Weekly
    13 May 2015

    CASC's CH-4 is equipped with an electro-optical sensor turret, a synthetic aperture radar system, and four hardpoints capable of mounting a variety of precision-guided munitions. Source: IHS/Kelvin Wong

    The US Department of Defense believes that China will acquire nearly 42,000 unmanned aerial vehicles by 2023, with some of these systems expected to be strike-capable

    This assessment is supported by the presence of a range of advanced UAV platforms, sensors, and weapons at 2014 Airshow China in Zhuhai

    China could manufacture up to 41,800 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), worth approximately USD10.5 billion, for land and sea-based operations by 2023, according to estimates cited by the US Department of Defense (DoD) in its 2015 annual report to Congress on Chinese military developments on 8 May.

    AVIC displayed its Yilong I/Wing Loong I UAV with an updated range of weapons and sensors at Airshow China 2014, including CASC's new TL-2 air-to-ground missile and a synthetic aperture radar. (IHS/Kelvin Wong)

    AVIC displayed its Yilong I/Wing Loong I UAV with an updated range of weapons and sensors at Airshow China 2014, including CASC's new TL-2 air-to-ground missile and a synthetic aperture radar. (IHS/Kelvin Wong)

    The DoD also believes that the development and acquisition of longer-range UAVs will increase China's ability to conduct long-range reconnaissance and strike operations, noting that four UAVs in development include the Xianglong (Soaring Dragon), Yilong (Pterodactyl), Sky Saber, and Lijian (Sharp Sword) in 2013.

    The report also stated that apart from the Xianglong, these platforms are also capable delivering precision weapons. However, this is essentially a reiteration of the observations made in its 2014 report and has since been overtaken by developments on the ground.

    For example, the Aviation Industry Corporation of China's (AVIC's) Yilong medium altitude long endurance (MALE) UAV - also known as the Wing Loong - had been showcased by the company in its production-ready form with further details of its performance profile, sensors, and weapons payload at the 2014 Airshow China exhibition in Zhuhai. Alongside AVIC's 'export' Yilong UAV were sensor and weapons payloads that have ostensibly been successfully integrated to the air vehicle.

    The PLAAF has acquired the Yilong I UAV and has designated it the Gongji-1, or Attack-1. (IHS/Kelvin Wong)

    The PLAAF has acquired the Yilong I UAV and has designated it the Gongji-1, or Attack-1. (IHS/Kelvin Wong)

    These include the Loong Eye (Dragon's Eye) LE380 model electro-optical infrared (EO/IR) turret, which is developed by its Luoyang Optoelectro Technology Development Center (LOEC) subsidiary. AVIC officials declined to disclose the specific variant of the Yilong's LE380 system, although the baseline model is equipped with an IR thermal imager and a colour charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. A laser rangefinder and designator is available as an option, which would likely be employed on the strike-capable variants of the vehicle.

    The company has also developed a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system called the DH-3010, which officials said will enable the Yilong to discern and track targets even under unfavourable surveillance conditions - such as thick cloud cover, fog, and smoke - that would degrade the performance of typical EO/IR systems.

    The company had in earlier events showcased the Yilong with the China North Industries Corporation's (Norinco's) Hongjian-10 (HJ-10) air-to-surface anti-armour missiles as well as LOEC's 50 kg LS-6-50 small-diameter bomb. At the 2014 airshow, however, AVIC showcased a wider range of weaponry associated with the UAV, including a three-missile launch pylon carrying the new 16 kg Tianlei-2 (TL-2) air-to-surface missile developed by Aerospace Long-March International Trade (ALIT).

    More importantly, the report has failed to acknowledge the Yilong's entry into People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) service, debuting at the airshow in PLAAF colours. In service vehicles have been designated the Gongji-1 (Attack-1), further indicating its employment as a strike-capable platform. PLAAF officials declined to reveal the number of Gongji I UAVs in its inventory, nor its service entry and deployment details.

    The report also noted the advancement of indigenous UAV-delivered precision weapons, which is also growing in tandem with the growth in air vehicle utility.

    "China is developing smaller-sized ASMs (air to surface missiles), such as the AR-1, HJ-10 anti-tank, Blue Arrow 7 laser-guided, and KD-2 missiles in conjunction with its increasing development of UAVs," the DoD stated, noting that GPS-guided munitions such as the FT-5 and LS-6, which are comparable with the US Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM), are being adapted for UAV applications.

    Likewise, the breadth and scope of Chinese UAV weapons development extends far beyond what had been detailed in the report.

    For example, the Beijing-based China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) unveiled at least four new indigenously developed precision-guided weapons in 2014, including the new Tian Lei (Sky Thunder) range of lightweight and compact guided ASMs specifically designed for employment aboard UAVs and light rotary aircraft, and UAV-specific models within its Fei Teng ('To Fly') guided bomb range.

    The Tian Lei product line currently comprises the Tian Lei-1 (TL-1) and Tian Lei-2 (TL-2) missile systems.

    According to CASC, the 85 kg TL-1 missile - which has been depicted in company literature as being launched from an Anjian (Dark Sword)-type unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) concept - is equipped with a set of foldable, high aspect-ratio cruciform wings and a solid-propellant dual-pulse rocket motor that enables it to defeat lightly protected land and naval targets up to 20 km away.

    The laser-guided 16 kg TL-2 short-range missile is tailored for smaller UAVs as well as for larger platforms where payload capacity is constrained by other mission critical equipment. The TL-2 can be equipped with either a 4 kg blast fragmentation or fuel air explosive (FAE) warhead designed for use against small land and naval platforms as well as personnel.

    A CASC spokesperson told IHS Jane's in November 2014 that both missiles have already been fully developed and are in production, revealing that the TL-2 has also been selected as the standard air-launched weapon for a new strike-capable variant of the Xian ASN-209 multirole tactical UAV platform, the ASN-209G.

    CASC has also developed new additions to its low-cost Fei Teng (FT) family of precision-guided munitions (PGMs) specifically designed for UAV delivery.

    The FT-9 is a 50 kg-class PGM that is available for both UAV and manned aircraft applications, with both models featuring a blast fragmentation warhead. In addition to its standard INS/satellite-guidance system, the FT-9 can also be equipped with an additional TV/IR camera or semi-active laser seeker to enable terminal course corrections. According to CASC, the FT-9 is capable of defeating fixed or stationary targets up to 5 km away from the launch vehicle with a CEP of 3 m when the optional terminal guidance kit installed, or 15 m when launched using its on-board guidance system.

    Another new addition to the Fei Teng range is the 25 kg-class FT-10, which features a steerable propulsion system comprising a solid rocket booster and actuating tail fins. CASC claims that the rocket-assisted flight capability enables the PGM to engage even slowly moving targets up to a maximum range of 8 km. The FT-10 can be also be fitted with a TV/IR or semi-active laser guidance system for enhanced accuracy.

    CASC's CH-4 (Cai Hong-4 or Rainbow-4) MALE UAV was also not mentioned by the DoD report. Already in PLAAF service, an undisclosed variant of the CH-4 demonstrated its strike capabilities during the multilateral 'Peace Mission' exercise in Inner Mongolia in August 2014. An export variant of its CH-4 was similarly exhibited at Airshow China 2014 with a wide array of weapons.

    CASC has also developed the TL-1 and TL-2 laser-guided air-to-surface missiles for light aircraft and UAV deployment. (IHS/Kelvin Wong)

    CASC has also developed the TL-1 and TL-2 laser-guided air-to-surface missiles for light aircraft and UAV deployment. (IHS/Kelvin Wong)

    CASC has also developed the TL-1 and TL-2 laser-guided air-to-surface missiles for light aircraft and UAV deployment. (IHS/Kelvin Wong)

    Source: IHS Jane's 360

  • ABD, 2019 yılına kadar İHA uçuşlarını %50 oranında artıracak

    Bir Pentagon sözcüsü tarafından yapılan açıklamaya göre, ABD 2019 yılına kadar İHA uçuşlarını %50 oranında artırmayı planlıyor. Halihazırda ABD Hava Kuvvetleri envanterinde bulunan MQ-1 Predator ve MQ-9 Reaper İHA sistemleri kullanılarak 60 adet Muhabere Hava Devriyesi sürekli gerçekleştirilebiliyor. Bu rakam 2019 yılında 90'a ulaşacak.

    ABD Hava Kuvvetleri İHA kullanım konsepti kapsamında kullanılan "Muhabere Hava Devriyesi" kapsamında, bir görev bölgesinde 7/24 olacak şekilde sürekli İHA bulundurulması gerekiyor. Bir Muhabere Hava Devriyesi için 3-4 civarında İHA ile yaklaşık 12 pilot ve 12 faydalı yük operatörü gerekiyor. Ayrıca, alınan verilerin kıymetlendirilmesi için oldukça fazla sayıda istihbarat personeli ile İHA sistemlerinin faaliyeti için yine çok sayıda bakım personeli gerekiyor.

    Kaynak: http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/08/17/usa-security-drones-idUSL1N10S11420150817?rpc=401&

  • ABD, İHA kaydına yönelik kuralları ilan etti

    ABD Sivil Havacılık Ajansı FAA, 25 kg (55 lb) ve altı azami kalkış ağırlığındaki hobi ve eğlence maksatlı İHA'lara yönelik kayıt usullerini açıkladı. 250 gram altındaki İHA'ları kapsam dışı bırakan düzenlemeye göre, online kayıt işlemi uygulaması 21 Aralık 2015 tarihinde başlayacak. Daha önce alınan İHA'ların da 19 Şubat 2016 tarihine kadar kaydının yapılması gerekiyor.

    İnternet üzerinden yapılacak online kayıt işlemleri için sadece 5 dolar ücret alınacak. Teşvik amacıyla 20 Ocak 2016 tarihine kadar yapılacak kayıt işlemlerinden herhangi bir ücret alınmayacak.

    Kayıt esnasında başvuru sahibi tarafından adının, ev adresinin ve e-posta adresinin bildirilmesi gerekiyor. Bu bilgilerin online kayıt sistemine girilmesi sonrasında, sistem tarafından bir tanıtım numarası içerecek şekilde Hava Aracı Kayıt Sertifikası oluşturulacak. Bahse konu tanıtım numarası İHA pilotuna yönelik olacak olup, İHA pilotunun sahip olduğu tüm İHA'lar için kullanılabilecektir. Tanıtım numarasının İHA üzerinde bulundurulması gerekiyor.

    Yayımlanan düzenleme sadece hobi ve eğlence maksatlı İHA'ları kapsamaktadır. Kayıt yaptıracak İHA pilotlarının en az 13 yaşında olması gerekiyor.

    Çalışmalarına Ekim 2015 sonunda başlayan FAA İHA Kaydı Çalışma Grubu, hazırladığı öneri listesini 21 Kasım 2015 tarihinde FAA'ye teslim etmişti. Çalışma grubu görüşleri ile diğer unsurlar tarafından verilen diğer görüşler dikkate alınarak FAA nihai çalışmasını yaklaşık 3 hafta içinde tamamlayarak yayımladı. 

    Kaynak: FAA

     

     

     

     

     

  • ABD, IŞİD'in Silahlı Kamikaze Drone'larına Karşı Sistem Geliştirecek

    ABD Savunma Bakanlığı tarafından el yapımı patlayıcılar ve mayınlarla mücadele için 2003 yılında kurulan Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Agency (JIDA), Suriye ve Irak'ta ABD birliklerine tehdit olan IŞİD'in silahlı Drone'larıyla mücadele için ABD Kongresi'nden 20 milyon dolar kaynak aktarılmasını talep etti. JIDA bu kapsamda karşı Drone sistemi geliştirmeye yönelik çalışmalar gerçekleştirecek.

    IŞİD unsurları, piyasadan temin ettikleri oldukça ucuz hobi maksatlı Drone'lara kamera entegre ederek bunları Suriye ve Irak'ta bir kaç yıldır kullanıyor. Son dönemde ise IŞİD unsurlarının Drone'lara el yapımı patlayıcı monte ederek suikast saldırıları yaptıklarına yönelik haberler çıkmaya başladı. Aralık 2015 ayında Suriye Kürtleri tarafından düşürülerek ele geçirilen iki adet IŞİD İHA'sında patlayıcı madde bulunduğu tespit edilmişti.

    Kaynak: Bloomberg

    Kaynak: Popular Mechanics

  • ABD, Libya'da IŞİD'le mücadele için Kuzey Afrika'da Drone Üssü arıyor

    U.S. Wants Drones in North Africa to Combat Islamic State in Libya

    By ADAM ENTOUS and  GORDON LUBOLD

    WASHINGTON—The U.S. is in talks with North African countries about positioning drones at a base on their soil to ramp up surveillance of Islamic State in Libya in what would be the most significant expansion of the campaign against the extremist group in the region.

    The establishment of such a base would help eliminate what counterterrorism officials described as one of the last and most pressing intelligence “blind spots” facing U.S. and Western spy agencies. Washington and its allies are seeking to contain the expansion of Islamic State beyond Iraq and Syria, where a U.S.-led military campaign against the group is already under way.

    “Right now, what we are trying to do is address some real intelligence challenges,” a senior administration official said. A base in North Africa close to Islamic State strongholds in Libya would help the U.S. “fill gaps in our understanding of what’s going on” there, the official added.

    The quest for a base represents an acknowledgment that the extremist group has managed to enlarge its area of influence even while under U.S. and allied bombardment in Iraq and Syria.

    Islamic State has claimed a number of attacks in North Africa recently, including the killing of dozens of foreign tourists at a Tunisian beach resort last month. The attacker may have trained in Libya with a militant group sympathetic to Islamic State.

    Drone flights from the base would provide the U.S. military and spy agencies with real time intelligence on Islamic State activities in Libya.

    U.S. officials acknowledged having too little intelligence on those activities today because existing bases are too far away to allow for more persistent surveillance. The long distances that drones now have to travel limit how much time they can spend observing militants in Libya before flying back to refuel and undergo maintenance.

    So far, none of the North African countries that could offer access to a base have agreed to do so, according to senior U.S. officials. Governments in the region see Islamic State as a threat but are worried that the group will target them more squarely if they agree to host the American military.

    Officials said any proposed location would almost certainly be a pre-existing base under the sovereign control of the host government, which would in turn give the U.S. permission to position drones there along with a limited number of U.S. military personnel.

    Administration officials declined to name the countries that could host U.S. drones in the region, citing political sensitivities in the region and concerns the information could prompt reprisals. Tunisia and Egypt both share borders with Libya and have long-standing intelligence and military ties with the U.S. Algeria has kept the U.S. at arms length, citing sovereignty issues. Morocco has close ties to Washington but its distance from Libya could make bases there of limited use.

    The White House on Friday named Tunisia a major non-NATO ally, a status that opens the door to limited additional military cooperation with the U.S. But administration officials said the designation wasn’t connected to U.S. efforts to secure a drone base in North Africa.

    The Obama administration also recently lifted restrictions on the transfer of military equipment to Egypt, including F-16s. As in Tunisia’s case, officials said the decision wasn’t related to U.S. efforts to secure access to a regional base for drone flights into Libya.

    Libya has been plunged into chaos since the U.S. and its European allies intervened militarily in 2011 to help oust longtime dictator Moammar Gadhafi. Warring militias and rival governments have splintered the country, creating fertile ground for extremists to flourish. In 2012, Islamist militants attacked the U.S. consulate in the eastern Libyan city of Benghazi, killing U.S. Ambassador Christopher Stevens and three other Americans.

    While surveillance flights would be the primary mission for the new effort at first, drones launched from the proposed base also could be used in future airstrikes against Islamic State targets in Libya, and the base could serve as a launchpad for missions by Special Operations Forces against militants there, U.S. military officials said.

    So far, the U.S. hasn’t taken any military action against Islamic State militants in Libya. A recent U.S. strike there targeted a militant leader long aligned with al Qaeda.

    Administration officials said they would be prepared to launch strikes against Islamic State militants in Libya if U.S. spy agencies learned that the group was plotting attacks against U.S. interests. But the officials said the White House didn’t envisage a concerted, Iraq-style bombing campaign for Libya, saying any strikes likely would take place sporadically to head off any suspected attacks.

    Administration officials said the White House’s primary focus for now was trying to help create a unified Libyan government that Washington then would work with to combat the Islamic State threat within its borders.

    Islamic State, also known as ISIS and ISIL, is based in Iraq and Syria, but U.S. intelligence agencies say the militant group is growing faster in Libya than anywhere else in the region.

    Islamic State, al Qaeda affiliates and other Islamist groups have been using strongholds in Libya as safe havens, enabling militants to train both North African and foreign fighters there and to plot attacks that pose a particular threat to European states just across the Mediterranean.

    In contrast to extremist groups in other countries in the region, which have pledged allegiance to Islamic State, some militants in Libya have long-standing links to the group’s predecessor organization, al Qaeda in Iraq. But the Libyan branch still operates largely autonomously from the Islamic State core in Syria and Iraq, U.S. officials said.

    The U.S. uses Naval Air Station Sigonella, in Sicily, Italy, for some drone flights over Libya. But surveillance operations from the base are routinely canceled because of frequent cloud cover over the Mediterranean and other weather-related hurdles.

    The U.S. military also has access to bases in Niger, both in Agadez in the central region of the country, and outside of the capital of Niamey, which it mainly uses to track al Qaeda-linked militants in Mali. But officials say those bases are too far from Libya to be useful for operations there.

    Ensuring that American intelligence assets have ready access to the skies over Libya is all the more critical now, given the security challenges the country poses, said retired Gen. Carter Ham, the commander of U.S. Africa Command until 2013.

    “The presence of ISIL and other extremist groups in Libya, particularly in eastern Libya, is of significant concern to the U.S.,” said Gen. Ham, now a senior adviser for the consulting firm SBD Advisors in Washington. “Not only has ISIL already conducted deadly attacks in Libya and Tunisia, eastern Libya remains a significant transit point for foreign fighters seeking to join ISIL in Syria and Iraq.”

    Officials said the effort was being closely coordinated with key allies in Europe, including Britain and France. But the proposed base would be used principally by unarmed U.S. drones.

    Officials from those countries said they are concerned about Libya and that they are working with the U.S. to address the Islamic State threat.

    Asked about the talks, White House National Security Council spokesman Alistair Baskey said: “We are cooperating closely with nations in North Africa, the Sahel (a sub-Saharan region), and Europe, which share our concerns about threats emanating from Libya. This includes gaining greater intelligence about the groups operating there.”

    A senior administration official said the discussions were ongoing and exploratory until an agreement is reached with a state in the region to host U.S. drones. It could then take months to get U.S. surveillance operations up and running at the base.

    African countries have long been reluctant to host American military personnel on their soil, complicating efforts by the U.S. military’s Africa Command, known as Africom, to establish permanent footholds on the continent to collect intelligence and project U.S. power in the vast area.

    Africom itself was headquartered in Germany in part because countries in the region were so sensitive.

    U.S. officials said any North African base used by the Americans would employ a limited number of American military or civilian personnel on a rotating basis, minimizing the need for a large American presence.

    Demand within the Pentagon for surveillance flights has been growing across the globe, and Africom hasn’t been the priority, according to current and former military officials.

    More drones are assigned to the U.S. Central Command’s areas of responsibility, which stretches from Syria to Pakistan and covers war zones in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    But officials said Africom’s share of the Pentagon’s global fleet of drones could increase in the coming years, in recognition of the region’s growing importance to ISIS and other Islamist groups. In recent years, Africom had typically gotten less than 10% of the total number of drone sorties the U.S. military flies around the world, officials said.

    “To date, U.S. national priorities have resulted in U.S. Africom receiving only a small percentage of the [intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance] assets required,” said Gen. Ham. “But, as the threat of [Islamic State] in Libya and elsewhere in Africa increases, a good case can be made that U.S. Africom’s allocation of critical ISR capabilities ought similarly be increased.”

    Source: The Wall Street Journal

  • ABD, Somali'de gizli İHA üsleri kurdu

    Exclusive: U.S. Operates Drones From Secret Bases in Somalia

    Exclusive: U.S. Operates Drones From Secret Bases in Somalia

    Two decades after “Black Hawk Down,” U.S. special operations forces are back in East Africa’s most troubled nation. FP provides a rare window into their shadowy operations.

    KISMAYO, Somalia — Some say the Americans are everywhere. Some say they are nowhere. Still others say they are everywhere and nowhere at once. But the shadowy U.S. presence in this strategic port city in war-torn southern Somalia has clear consequences for anyone with a share of power here. That includes Somali regional officials who are quick to praise American counterterrorism efforts, African Union forces who rely on U.S. intelligence as they battle back al-Shabab, and even the al Qaeda-linked militants themselves, who are increasingly hemmed in by a lethal combination of AU-led counterinsurgency, airstrikes, and raids by U.S. special operators.

    Based out of a fortress of fading green Hesco barriers at the ramshackle airport in Kismayo, a team of special operators from the Joint Special Operations Command, the elite U.S. military organization famous for killing Osama bin Laden, flies drones and carries out other counterterrorism activities, multiple Somali government and African Union sources have confirmed. Their presence in this volatile city, which until 2012 was controlled by al-Shabab, has not previously been reported. Nor has the United States acknowledged operating drones from Somali soil. (Unmanned armed and surveillance flights are said to originate from Camp Lemonnier in nearby Djibouti or from bases in neighboring Kenya and Ethiopia.)

    “They have a base over there,” Abdighani Abdi Jama, state minister for the presidency in the interim regional administration in Kismayo, said of U.S. forces, gesturing to a heavily fortified compound not far from the airport’s small terminal. He confirmed that as many as 40 U.S. military personnel are currently stationed in Kismayo, roughly 300 miles south of the capital of Mogadishu, where he said they operate drones from the airport’s single runway and carry out covert “intelligence” and “counterterrorism” operations.

    “They have high tech; they have drones; they have so many things,” said Jama. “We are really benefiting.” Another regional official, Jubaland’s minister of planning, international cooperation, and humanitarian affairs, Mohamed Nur Iftin, also confirmed the existence of the U.S. outpost and the use of the runway for drones, as did a cabinet-level official in Mogadishu. Kenyan Brig. Gen. Daniel Bartonjo, the sector-level commander for the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), the multinational peace enforcement mission that has been battling al-Shabab since 2007, said that his troops have made gains against insurgents “with the help of the Americans who are here.” He made this comment in a June 19 briefing in Kismayo for Nicholas Kay, the special representative of the U.N. secretary-general for Somalia, attended by this reporter.

    The secretive outpost in Kismayo is one of several locations within Somalia where U.S. special operations forces have set up shop beyond the prying eyes of the Somali public — and the American public that foots the bill. Somali government and AMISOM sources confirmed the existence of a second clandestine American cell in Baledogle, the site of an abandoned Cold War-era Air Force base in Somalia’s sun-blasted Lower Shabelle region. These sources estimated that between 30 and 40 U.S. personnel are stationed there, also carrying out counterterrorism operations that include operating drones.

    A spokesman for the U.S. Special Operations Command, which handles public affairs for JSOC, referred Foreign Policy to the U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) for comment. AFRICOM spokesman Chuck Prichard, in turn, confirmed that a “small number” of U.S. personnel within AFRICOM’s area of responsibility are special operations forces, but declined to comment on the size or location of their units. He also declined to comment on whether or not they are responsible for operating drones, saying only that they “are not tasked with directly engaging enemy forces.”

    “While we cannot provide exact details because of operational security issues, we can tell you [U.S. AFRICOM] has sent a limited number of trainers and advisors plus a small military coordination cell to support AMISOM and Somali security forces in international efforts to stabilize Somali,” Prichard wrote in an email to Foreign Policy. “The sharing of information and expertise is key to assisting partner nations in their mission. The exact nature of this support, weapons systems or number of personnel involved in these operations cannot be disclosed in order to protect the integrity of these operations and the safety of units in the region.”

    The expanded U.S. footprint in Somalia is part of a broader trend toward deeper covert military engagement in the volatile Horn of Africa region. That engagement has taken the form of ramped-up intelligence and special operations activities, as well as military assistance programs that have grown dramatically in recent years without much in the way of public debate or congressional oversight. As the U.S. Defense Department draws down its presence in Afghanistan and shutters bases across Europe, and as the threat of terrorism surges in East Africa, the quiet accumulation of military installations in this part of the world has been easy to miss. In addition to its main hub in Djibouti, where some 4,000 American service members and civilians are stationed, the U.S. military has established smaller outposts in Ethiopia, Kenya, and the Seychelles, a tropical archipelago located roughly 800 miles off the Somali coast. It has also indirectly financed the training of thousands of AMISOM troops.

    U.S. boots on the ground

    Even as it became firmly entrenched in the region, the U.S. government for years denied putting boots on the ground in Somalia, where the infamous “Black Hawk Down” disaster in 1993 sparked an American exodus from the region. But in June of last year, Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs Wendy Sherman acknowledged that a “small contingent of U.S. military personnel” had been operating inside Somalia for “several years.” The news agency Reuters later quoted an unnamed official of President Barack Obama’s administration as saying that there were “up to” 120 U.S. personnel stationed inside the country.

    Although much of what the U.S. military does in Somalia remains shrouded in secrecy, it is clear that the Americans are doing more than just gathering intelligence and supporting African troops. In recent years, special operations commandos have staged a number of daring raids on al-Shabab targets, including an aborted amphibious assault in 2013 by Navy SEAL Team 6 aimed at capturing one of the suspects in the Westgate Mall attack, which took place in neighboring Kenya and left 67 people dead. U.S. forces have also carried out drone strikes and other airstrikes in Somalia since at least 2007, when an American AC-130 gunship fired the opening salvo in the Somali theater of the war on terror. That operation targeted a convoy carrying Aden Hashi Ayro, an al Qaeda operative thought to be responsible for the murder of Western aid workers. Ayro survived, only to be taken out by a U.S. missile strike one year later.

    As the al-Shabab threat intensified in the middle 2000s, and as more and more foreign fighters were drawn into the fray, Somalia began to inch up the Pentagon’s list of priorities. “When you had [American] Somalis leave from Minnesota [to go] to Somalia and [blow] themselves up, then it really, really started getting people nervous, and more and more discussions began to pop up about ‘we need to spend more resources’ [and] ‘how do we fix this problem?’” said Rudolph Atallah, the Pentagon’s former top Africa counterterrorism official.

    Part of the fix opted for by U.S. policymakers involved ramping up airstrikes and other kinetic operations against al-Shabab. Between 2007 and 2011, when the first lethal drone strike was reportedly carried out in Somalia, U.S. forces launched at least nine missile strikes or helicopter raids on al-Shabab targets, according to the Bureau of Investigative Journalism. The United States has since carried out between eight and 12 additional drone strikes that have killed dozens of al-Shabab militants, among them the movement’s top leader, Ahmed Abdi Godane.

    Until now, though, U.S. operations were thought to originate from outside the country, carried out by Navy SEALS and other special operators who swooped into Somalia only briefly before retreating to the relative safety of Djibouti or Kenya. That assurance has been eroded by the revelation of cells of special operators in Kismayo and Baledogle, and by the small window into their activities provided by Somali and AMISOM officials. In addition to flying drones and conducting other surveillance and reconnaissance activities, sources say that U.S. special operators have on occasion decamped for AMISOM forward operating bases and attacked al-Shabab targets alongside African Union troops.

    “They come to our forward operating bases and sometimes do joint operations with us,” said a source with knowledge of Ugandan operations within AMISOM. (Ugandan troops are responsible for the sector that includes Baledogle, whereas Kenyan troops operate in and around Kismayo.) “We often don’t get much notice,” the source added. “They don’t trust us, and we don’t trust them.”“We often don’t get much notice,” the source added. “They don’t trust us, and we don’t trust them.”

    Gains against al-Shabab, but at a cost

    But it’s not just U.S. special operators that are leaving their mark on the Somali conflict. As the comments by the AMISOM commander in Kismayo suggest, the United States has also gotten mileage out of the advise-and-assist role it plays in support of the African Union mission. In addition to passing intelligence to AU troops, who have seen the lion’s share of the combat, the United States has invested hundreds of millions of dollars in training and equipping its AU proxies. U.S. support for AMISOM since 2007 comes to more than $500 million. Washington also chipped in another $455 million to the U.N. assistance mission in Somalia that provides logistical support to the AU forces.

    This support has helped AMISOM turn the tide against al-Shabab, which at its height in 2011 controlled huge swaths of Somalia. “Five years ago, [al-Shabab] controlled 60 percent of this country. Today they control 6 percent, barely,” said Somali Minister of Planning and International Cooperation Abdirahman Yusuf Ali Aynte, who added that the terrorist group still “retains operational capacity throughout the country.”

    But experts caution that the gains made by AMISOM, which accelerated after the U.N. Security Council topped up the peace enforcement mission with an additional 4,000 Ethiopian troops after the Westgate Mall attack in 2013, have not degraded the al-Shabab threat as thoroughly as some have claimed. “Al-Shabab is simply retreating, conceding ground,” said Bronwyn Bruton, deputy director of the Africa Center at the Atlantic Council. “They are not actually confronting AMISOM head-on anymore, which means that their forces and weapons are mostly intact. They have shifted from a conventional force to a pure terrorist one that is increasingly focusing its attention on attacks outside of Somalia, in Kenya, and elsewhere in the region.”

    AMISOM’s territorial gains have also spread its forces more thinly, leaving their supply lines exposed to asymmetrical attacks. Ambushes and improvised explosive devices, once relatively infrequent in Somalia, are now regular occurrences on the sparsely monitored highways that connect pockets of AMISOM control. In the briefing in Kismayo, Brig. Gen. Bartonjo reported that his forces had weathered 42 IED attacks and ambushes, although he did not say within what time frame.

    As African Union troops struggle to maintain order in areas captured from al-Shabab, the importance of training competent Somali military and police units to help fill the security void — and eventually to take over for AMISOM, which at the moment has no clear exit strategy — has come to the fore. As a result, the United States is now involved in training the Somali National Army as well as African Union forces.

    Sharpening the spear

    The Central Intelligence Agency, whose substantial presence in Mogadishu was first exposed by the Nation magazine, is thought to have trained and equipped a clandestine commando force of Somalis known as the Gaashaan, or “Shield.” This force, which works in close concert with Somalia’s National Intelligence and Security Agency, is considered a cut above the ragtag national army and has notched a number of impressive military achievements. When al-Shabab gunmen descended on Somalia’s Parliament last May, for example, the Gaashaan played a pivotal role in repulsing the attack.

    Now U.S. contractors are training another battalion, the Danab, or “Lightning,” which is supposed to be Somalia’s answer to the U.S. Army Rangers. “It’s basically really at the beginning stage, because we’ve only so far recruited and at least done some training of three companies” totaling around 450 troops, said a U.S. official with knowledge of Somalia policy, who characterized the program as “the most significant” U.S. training initiative to date. The U.S. official said that the elite companies, which are supposed to include fighters from multiple clans and regions in order to encourage loyalty to the central government, represent a “model for the future Somali National Army.” Ultimately, the official said, “you’d like to see this multiplied out [to more battalions], and we would like to do that, although frankly the resources aren’t there to do it as quickly as some people would like to see done.”

    The training of Danab forces currently takes place in Baledogle at a facility run by the contractor Bancroft Global Development. The shadowy U.S. outfit, which in 2011 was revealed to have hired a former French army officer convicted in South Africa of recruiting mercenaries to fight in Ivory Coast, maintains a dingy, second-floor office in the decrepit Soviet-era Air Force base, which is riddled with bullet holes and badly in need of a paint job. In one otherwise Spartan room, a roster of Danab personnel, complete with passport-sized photos, stared down from the wall. Elsewhere, there were lists of Danab weapons and equipment.

    Despite the willingness of U.S. officials to own the Danab training operation in Baledogle, Bancroft employees downplayed their ties with the U.S. government. “We have nothing to do with the Americans,” said one employee, a stocky former special operator whose biceps bulged out of his tight-fitting company shirt. “We’re in charge of training Danab. We have nothing to do with the Americans, and the Americans have nothing to do with us.”

    Bancroft’s executive director, Marc Frey, told Foreign Policy that the company “has no contracts with the U.S. government” and “no contract to train the Danab battalion with any country.” Instead, U.S. officials say the company trains Somali National Army troops as part of a larger contract with the Ugandan government to provide what it calls “military mentors” to AMISOM. The U.S. government then reimburses the Ugandans for the cost of the training.

    While this roundabout method of payment has been the norm for Bancroft’s training of AMISOM troops over the years, some officials worry that it shields the firm from the additional scrutiny that goes along with contracting directly with the U.S. government. “Basically, it’s a way for the [United States] to avoid having to look too hard at what Bancroft or any other contractor is up to,” said a U.N. official in Mogadishu. “If everything was kosher, there would be no need to go through such maneuvers.”

    The U.N. Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea has raised concerns about the conduct of other military contractors operating in Somalia — in 2012, it accused Sterling Corporate Services, a Dubai-based company involved in training an anti-piracy force in the semiautonomous region of Puntland, of a “brazen, large-scale and protracted violation” of the U.N. arms embargo — but to date no allegations of misconduct have been levied against Bancroft. In fact, the African Union turned to the U.S. contractor to pick up the pieces after the Sterling venture fell apart, but Bancroft declined to get involved after documenting ongoing violations of the arms embargo.

    The conditions under which Bancroft and other private military contractors operate, however, offer little in the way of transparency or safeguards against abuse. Vast swaths of Somalia are effectively lawless, and communications links between rural communities are weak. Neither feature of the terrain augers well for accountability. “Even the glossiest [private security companies] — think Blackwater back in the day — are prone to excesses of force,” said the Atlantic Council’s Bruton. “In the Somali context, those excesses are likely to go unreported, which makes abuse all the more likely.”

    The same goes for any potential abuses committed by U.S. special operators or by the African Union troops they coordinate with on the battlefield. As one senior military official with special operations experience recently told the New York Times, “JSOC investigates JSOC, and that’s part of the problem.”

    Nobody’s first choice

    The secretive nature of U.S. special operations also makes it difficult to assess the implications for civilians, who are often preyed upon whether or not al-Shabab is present. The routing of the militant group from many areas has not yet translated into improved day-to-day living for the majority of the population. Nor are the democratic credentials of the replacement authorities all that much better.

    In Kismayo, the cell of U.S. special operators is indirectly propping up an interim regional administration presided over by a notorious warlord and former member of al-Shabab. Ahmed Mohamed Islam, better known as “Madobe” — whose Ras Kamboni militia hosted al Qaeda training camps in the 1990s and who Bruton describes as “one of the most radical” militants — seized power after Kenyan forces pushed al-Shabab out of Kismayo in 2012. Madobe has since received the imprimatur of the United Nations, which is providing his administration with technical assistance as it drafts a new constitution. According to Matt Bryden, who used to head the U.N. Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea, Madobe was “nobody’s first choice” to lead the emerging U.N.-backed state-level administration.

    “The model in Kismayo — strongman takes power and then establishes a parliament — is far from ideal,” said Bryden. “I don’t think anyone thinks this is the way Somalia is going to be stabilized over the long-run.”

    As long as U.S. drones keep a watchful eye over Madobe’s fiefdom, however, nobody’s first choice may remain the only viable one.

    Photo credit: JOEL SAGET/AFP/Getty Images

    Source: FP

  • ABD: Integration of Civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) Roadmap (2013)

    Dosyayı Açınız

  • ABD: Overview of Small UAS Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (2015)

    Dosyayı Açınız

  • ABD: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Operational Approval (2013)

    Purpose of this Notice. This notice provides policies necessary for reviewing and evaluating the safety and interoperability of proposed Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flight operations conducted within the United States (U.S.) National Airspace System (NAS) for the Aviation Safety (AVS) Flight Standards Service (AFS), UAS Integration Office (AFS-80), when assessing applications for a Certificate of Waiver or Authorization (COA) or special airworthiness certificate.

    Dokümanı Açınız

  • ABD'de Drone hizmeti sağlayan firmalar hızla çoğalıyor

    As commercial drone use soars, 'drone services' take flight

    Companies that broker drone services could soon be the biggest players in the U.S. commercial drone economy.

    In late June, Massachusetts-based startup Fly4Meopened for business, joining more than 500 (and counting) businesses in the U.S. that are now cleared by the FAA to operate drones commercially. Like most of its competition, Fly4Me’s so-called Section 333 exemption allows the company to deploy drones to gather aerial data and conduct research for commercial gain.

    However, the company differs greatly from other Section 333 holders, chiefly because it doesn’t actually operate any drones. Its website, launched in beta last month, connects drone pilots with companies that need aerial data collection, but don’t necessarily want to invest in their own drone fleet. The company is part of a growing sub-market within the larger drone economy focused on “drones as service,” a segment many believe will soon overshadow the multi-billion-dollar market for drone hardware itself.

    “There are drone makers, there are the companies that want to use drones, and then there’s everything in between,” says Lisa Ellman, a drone policy expert and co-leader of the UAS Group at the Washington D.C. offices of law firm Hogan Lovells. “Drones as service” companies see opportunities in a growing space that exists between those certified to operate commercial drones and potential clients that want to utilize drone data, she says.

    The growing drone service business has a lot to do with changing government regulations. Technically, commercial drone operations are banned in U.S. airspace pending the finalization of new FAA drone rules expected sometime next year, but under pressure from industry groups the FAA last year began issuing exemptions for commercial drone use. Those exemptions, known within the industry as Section 333s, allow companies to fly drones commercially under a pre-defined set of conditions outlined in government applications every firm must fill out. Companies must identify what specific drones they want to use, what those drones will be used for, and why the marketplace needs that service.

    Originally Section 333 exemptions also required applicants to state the location in where drone operations would take place, limiting where and when exemption holders could operate their drones. Then, in March, the FAA eased its drone rules, allowing Section 333 holders to operate their drones anywhere as long as their aircraft remained below 200 feet above ground level.

    The new regulations have been a huge boon for the drone service industry, since companies like Fly4Me can now get a Section 333 that allows it and/or its subcontractors to conduct commercial operations anywhere not strictly prohibited by FAA rules (for example, near airports). Fly4Me received its Section 333 approval in April is and already working with several certified drone pilots to provide data to customers, mostly aerial video and imagery for photographers and commercial properties like golf courses. The company is also working with a solar company to capture roof dimensions and shading data for solar panel placement and infrastructure inspections.

    “We did not expect this kind of explosion, this kind of interest,” says company cofounder Dmitry Sharshunskiy. “We originally were going to launch only in Massachusetts, but we received so many requests that we had to immediately go nationwide.”

    Meanwhile, a firm called Measure, currently based in Washington, D.C., has also recently moved into the drone service space. The company acts as something of a consultant and drone service provider that targets larger Fortune 1000 companies. While Measure currently operates no drones itself, that will likely change in the next 12 to 24 months, says company CEO Brandon Declet. The company’s Section 333 exemption covers more than 400 different types of aircraft, he says, allowing Measure to contract just about any drone a client could need for any application.

    Brokering drone services is only part of what Measure does for clients, Declet says. Right now the company is focused on developing relationships with corporations that could benefit from drones and helping them figure out how best to integrate the technology into their operations. The ultimate goal, he says, is to show these companies exactly how drones fit into their business model and then ink long-term contracts for providing those drone services.

    Unlike other companies, most of Measure’s founders come from the world of government or big business rather than aviation or aerospace, fields where understanding regulation and return on investment (ROI) trump technical acumen. “We’re one of the few companies talking to end users about ROI,” Declet says. “There’s no reason for anyone to sign a long-term contract [for drone services] if there’s not some kind of return on investment.”

    Providing companies with drone insight has helped it develop relationships with mining companies in Western Australia, Guinea, Zambia and Tanzania, as well as with a utility in Gabon. The company will soon launch an ROI calculator for the American Farm Bureau Federation to help farmers determine whether incorporating drones into their business makes sense. It’s also worked with the American Red Cross, producing a report detailing how drones could aid in disaster response.

    Fly4Me and Measure are far from alone in the drone services space. Goforoffers “drones on demand,” an app-based platform allowing customers to use their smartphones to “task a drone to complete a variety of helpful tasks.” Likewise San Francisco-based startup Skycatch, which offers its own proprietary drone platform for lease to commercial customers, is developing a platform called Workmode that connects companies to third-party pilots, similar to Fly4Me. A number of startups—some still in stealth mode—are developing similar business models built around brokering drone services to those who need them.

    The growing number of businesses entering the drone service market signals a certain maturity within the larger drone marketplace, Declet says. The real inflection point for the industry won’t come to pass until sometime next year when the FAA likely abandons the Section 333 exemption regime. Most assume the agency will decide to issue a new set of rules for commercial drone operations that will allow companies to operate drones commercially, either in-house or as a services provider. Once that happens, service brokers and integrators, like Measure, will likely see increased competition, he says, althought the overall marketplace will expand as well. As drone technology itself becomes more mainstream, drone services will be the next big evolution for the industry.

    “I think this market is going to be very, very large [and] ultimately much bigger than the hardware market,” Declet says. “Services is the future of this industry.”

    Source: Fortune

  • ABD'de elektrik iletim hatları İHA'yla kontrol ediliyor

    Consumers Energy debuts new drone technology to monitor utility lines

    Consumers Energy launched an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in Cement City to inspect utility poles and help determine whether the emerging technology can improve customer service, utility reps said Monday, June 22.

    The remote controlled UAV can transport a 14-pound payload and can be used to inspect utility lines and take thermal and regular video images, Consumers Energy rep Andrew Bordine said.

    U.S. Senator Gary Peters, D-Michigan, was on hand during the launch event Monday morning, and said Consumers Energy has the opportunity "to be a big leader" in the use of UAVs for utility line work and review.

    "The technology can ultimately mean lower costs for Consumers and then lower rates for people," he said. "Now it's a balancing act between the tremendous potential of this technology and privacy and safety concerns."

    Peters serves on the Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee, which oversees the Federal Aviation Administration. Bordine said there were "significant hurdles" to jump in an attempt to make the unmanned aircraft legal under "strict" Federal Aviation Administration standards.

    The drone has to fly under 500 feet, he said, which means it can be used to inspect utility windmills as well, which have blades that go up to a maximum of 500 feet in the air.

    The drones will be a "huge asset" when inspecting utility lines after storms, said Mary Palkovich, Consumers Energy's vice president of energy delivery. "We're in the process of using UAV technology on a limited basis and analyzing if it will help improve energy service delivery," she said in a prepared statement to the media.

    Consumers Energy is the fourth energy company in the country and the first in Michigan to receive FAA approval to test UAVs. The approval allows drone assessing in three Michigan counties: Jackson, Mason and Tuscola.

    The drone tested Monday cost roughly $10,000, Bodine said, and the investment will go a long way in saving the utility money.

    "Twice a year, we use helicopters to inspect high-voltage power lines, which is expensive," he said.

    The Consumers Energy team charged with developing the drone technology dubbed the program "Quimby," after Michigan aviation pioneer Harriet Quimby, the first American woman to receive a pilot's license eight years after the first recorded flight, and the first woman to fly across the English Channel.

    Source: http://www.mlive.com/news/jackson/index.ssf/2015/06/consumers_energy_debuts_new_dr.html

  • ABD'de FAA, İHA'ların nerelerde uçurabileceğini gösteren uygulamayı kullanıma sundu

    ABD Sivil Havacılık Organizasyonu FAA, İHA'ların nerelerde uçurabileceğini gösteren bir uygulamayı geliştirerek Beta test versiyonunu 28 Ağustos 2015 tarihinde kullanıma sundu. Şimdilik sadece iOS mobil işletim sistemi olan cihazlara yüklenebilecek B4UFLY uygulaması sayesinde pilotlar, İHA'larını nerede uçurabileceğini ve aynı zamanda nerede uçuramayacağını da görebilecek.

    Test uygulaması kapsamında 1.000 kişinin kayıt olmasına izin verilecek. İlk gün kısa bir süre içinde 1.000 test rakamına ulaşılması sonucunda kayıtlar kapanmış durumunda. Ancak FAA yeni başvuruları bekleme listesine alıyor. Küçük bir gruba uygulanacak test deneme süreci sonucunda elde edilecek sonuçlara göre uygulama iyileştirilecek. Uygulamanın bir sonraki versiyonunun aynı zamanda Android cihazlarda da kullanılması planlanıyor.

    Kaynak: FAA

  • ABD'de İHA uçuş izni alan ilk 500 firmanın ayrıntılı listesi

    These are the first 500 companies allowed to fly drones over the US

    A precision agriculture firm in Charles City, Iowa. A builder performing roof inspection from Carlisle, Kentucky. A company monitoring explosive charges based in Ijamesville, Maryland. A security firm conducting surveillance over private property in Cottage Grove, Oregon. These are just a handful of the businesses now allowed to fly drones over US soil.

    Until recently it was extremely difficult to fly a drone for commercial purposes in the US, at least legally. At the start of 2015 just a dozen companies had been granted special exemptions by the FAA to fly, and most of those were for filming on a closed set. The first half of 2015, however, has seen an explosion of new businesses given permission to fly. Over 500 FAA exemptions to fly drones were handed out to farmers, railroads, security services, and medical facilities.

    THE NUMBER OF US COMPANIES ALLOWED TO FLY DRONES HAS EXPLODED

    These drones are all required to have a human pilot and stay within the operator's line of site. But the FAA is planning to begin making exceptions to that rule. Companies like BNSF railroad are harbingers of a new era in robotics, when autonomous and semi-autonomous machines will drive our streets, sail our seas, and even walk through our bars and shops.

    We have partnered with the Center for the Study of the Drone at Bard College to collect data on every commercial exemption the FAA grants. It's a fascinating snapshot of a fast-growing industry still in its infancy. Below is an interactive database that allows you to drill deeper into details, exploring the companies that have been given permission to fly and what they are planning to do with their drones. You can also search by state and figure out who near you is planning to put a drone in the sky.

    Three big takeaways stand out in this first wave of exemptions.

    1. DJI, the Chinese drone maker that recently raised venture capital at a lofty valuation, is incredibly dominant.

    When asking for an FAA exemption, companies must specify what model of drone they plan to fly. More than half of the first 500 exemptions asked to fly DJI products, and its overall share of the market is likely even higher, as many companies requested multiple DJI drones. Its Hollywood caliber S-class units were certainly popular, but its prosumer-level Inspire One, and basic consumer-grade Phantom units were far and away the most requested among the exemptions.

    "DJI’s apparent dominance can be attributed in large part to the popularity of its drones among recreational users. It’s also a reflection of the types of companies that are receiving exemptions. A large proportion of these companies are startups that are seeking to provide aerial imagery to a range of industries," says Daniel Gettinger, co-director of the Center for the Study of the Drone at Bard College. "With that in mind, it’s no wonder that these companies are going to go with the model of drone that users are familiar with and that sets a pretty low barrier to entry. Because of its popularity among recreational drone users and the makeup of the commercial drone industry, DJI got a head start on all the other drone manufacturers."

    2. Military grade drones are being repurposed for commercial use:

    The drones being flown for commercial purposes have a broad overlap with the ones being used by your average hobbyist. Units from DJI and 3D Robotics that we have reviewed on The Verge are being tested as replacements for field hands and safety inspectors. But there are also drones designed for use on the battlefield now making their way into less intense civilian applications.

    EnrGies Inc, for example, is a company run and staffed by disabled veterans. It offers up drone pilots with battlefield experience for any sort of mission and has been granted an exemption to fly the Lockheed Martin Indago and Lockheed Martin Desert Hawk III. Stark Aerospace (no, not that Tony Stark) got permission to fly its Arrowlite drone for domestic infrastructure and utilities inspection.

    "DEFENSE CONTRACTORS HAVE BEEN POSITIONING THEMSELVES TO CLAIM A PART OF THE COMMERCIAL DRONE MARKET."

    "The appearance of military systems is not an accident. In the past couple of years, large defense contractors have been positioning themselves to claim a part of the commercial drone market, which is likely to surpass the military market in size once full regulations are enacted," says Arthur Holland Michael, founder and editor of the Center for the Study of the Drone at Bard College. "Military contractors are vocal within the chorus of voices urging the FAA to open up the domestic skies as quickly as possible."

    AeroVironment, for example, is an established military contractor. It got a commercial exemption to fly its Puma AE, described on the company's site as battleworthy, for commercial agriculture, aerial survey, and "patrol operations." The company described this transition openly. "The Raven, Puma AE, and Wasp UAS prove their value on the battlefield on a regular basis by providing their operators with critical information to help them make better decisions. These advanced tools are already starting to provide the same benefits closer to home."

    aereovironment wasp

    3. The US is finally catching up to Europe and Canada.

    Over the last two years, the lack of a legal framework for commercial drone flight in the US has slowed the growth of the industry domestically. Despite creating some of the world's most advanced drone technology, the US was lagging behind other advanced nations in putting that innovation to work. "Getting an FAA exemption was pretty complicated, and hence you mostly had just larger companies, military contractors, and big energy firms spending the effort to obtain them," says Bilal Zuberi, a venture capitalist with investments in the drone industry. "At one point having an exemption was thought of as a real competitive advantage. That's no longer the case. It’s now just a basic, painful, bureaucratic process of standing in line to get your permission."

    In the six weeks since we started working on this project, the number of drone exemptions processed by the FAA has nearly doubled. "Over the last 12 months, one of the things I have noticed is major corporations have decided the existential risk of drones is gone," says Zuberi. "Now most big companies have tasked somebody to figure out their "drone" strategy. Previously there was a lot more action happening overseas. Thankfully, that is starting to change."

    We'll be working with the Drone Center to refresh the data powering these charts every few weeks. There are now hundreds of exemptions being granted every month, so you can check back here soon for an update on the rapidly evolving shape of this booming industry.

    Source: The Verge